If it’s a small farm with few chickens, manure management can be easy. But if a large farm With a large number of chickens, possibly tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands, the removal of excrement would be very problematic. Chicken droppings excreted either by weight or volume vary greatly from approximately 35% to 145% of the feed intake depending on whether it is by weight or by volume. If weighed immediately after the chickens excreted droppings. It will come out to gain more weight. Due to the high humidity of the manure, Ota and McNally (1961 ; According to Bell and Weaver, 2002), the white leech horn excretes approximately 140-195 g/day (fresh dung weight), which is approximately 1.45 times the weight of feed. (1971 ; quote Bell and Weaver, 2002) data on laying hens raised in the United States found that laying hens excreted an average of 122 g/head/day, which is almost the same amount as their daily feed intake, and Larenz (1986). ; According to Bell and Weaver, 2002), chickens excrete about 35% of the estimated feed intake. (59% moisture content of manure) Litter material in this chapter refers to Mixture of manure and litter, Paterson et al. (1998 ; According to Bell and Weaver, 2002), broiler chickens raised to 44 days and 57 days of age gain weight. of the foundation material up about 22 and 26 kg/day/1,000 chickens, respectively, and if calculated as weight Dry yields are approximately 0.73 and 1.23 tons/1,000 chickens when raised to 44 and 57 days of age, respectively. Problems with the removal of chicken droppings vary from area to area. Depending on the environment, nature of climate, topography and the use of chicken manure such as use as fertilizer for field crops, etc.
Management to use chicken manure as fertilizer for plants.
The amount of manure produced from chickens in Table 3.1 is based on excretion of approximately 102 g/day/head in white smallhorn laying hens and 116 g/head/day in brown shell laying hens. The amount of waste accumulated under The chicken cage or inside the chicken house depends on the method of drying the manure. in which the weight and volume of the manure is gradually reduced
according to the storage period due to water evaporation and decomposition According to estimates, one laying hen produces approximately 1.8 cubic feet of manure/bird/year. In the meantime, if there is natural drying and decomposition. Some microorganisms will reduce the volume to about 1 cubic foot / body / year.
Table 3.1 Estimated amount of manure generated from raising laying hens Alternative layer hens and broiler chickens (fresh manure, estimated based on feed intake)
Animals (10,000 heads) Fresh manure (tons/day) Fresh manure (heads/year)* Dry manure (tons/year)** Layers – White eggshell 1.13 410.6 136.7 – Brown eggshell 1.28 465.4 155.1 Alternative laying hens (Replacement pullet, 0-20 weeks) – White eggshell 0.54 179.4 59.8 – Brown eggshell 0.61 200.6 66.9 Broilers – 0-42 days 0.87 237.2 79.1 – 0-49 days 1.01 287.0 95.6 – 0-56 days 1.14 332.8 110.9
* There is a dorm period of about 2 weeks/herd (no foundation material).
** Dried manure has a moisture content of about 25-35%.
Source: Bell and Weaver (2002)
The need to dry manure
The moisture in the feces can cause a number of problems, including:
1. It is food and spawning ground for flies. 2. Shipping costs for bringing The amount of dung taken from the farm will be higher. Because if the humidity is high, it will weigh more (weight / volume). 3. The amount of nutrients per unit weight decreased. (in the case of making fertilizer for plants) 4. Strong smell
Fresh manure that has just been excreted from laying hens has a moisture content of about 70-80%. Variable because moisture may be added from other sources such as from the watering device and personal behavior of chickens while drinking water, etc. The recommended manure management is to keep the dung moisture not more than 30% to avoid feeding. and the spawning ground of flies This can be done by raising chickens at an appropriate density rate, installing a fan so that the wind blows through the dung directly and turns the dung more often, etc. From the data in Table 3.1, 1,000 chickens excrete 420 tons of manure/year. When dried (with a moisture content of 25-30%), only 137 tons of manure remains to be transported from the farm. It can be seen that if we dry the manure, the amount of manure can be reduced to only one third of the original weight. Or we can reduce the number of trucks from 20 cars to only 7 cars, thus saving transportation costs. Chicken droppings have long been used as fertilizer for plants. Chicken droppings are a good source of organic matter and trace elements. However, the problem with the use of chicken manure is the nutrient content of the chicken manure in each flock, each house is not stable. Therefore, it is difficult for farmers to use the crops and the crops will receive the precise nutrients they need. The amount of nutrients in the manure or in the litter will vary due to the type of chicken. chicken recipes How to care for and manage the droppings, etc. One reason for the variation in nutrient content in manure is different moisture content. Fresh manure may contain more than 70% water or moisture as the manure dries not only the nutrient concentration per unit. Only the weight changes but the concentration per unit volume also changes. due to also change the structure of the dung. compared to fresh manure Dried manure with a moisture content of approximately 30% will have a volume reduction of approximately 50% from the volume of fresh manure.
There are two main methods of drying chicken manure:
1. Drying with the help of equipment Some farms use drying aids to get chicken manure for fertilizer. good quality It can reduce the volume and weight of feces and can prevent degradation by bacteria. which will cause a foul smell Dryers that are available today use temperatures ranging from 371-982 °C (700-1,800 °C). The drying time depends on the temperature used. moisture content in manure The flow rate of the manure and the final moisture content of the manure we need. Conventional dryers can reduce the moisture content of the manure from 70% to
Only 10% left in just 10 minutes
2. Natural drying by using sunlight It is commonly used in areas with little rainfall. raising laying hens Cage and excrement are collected daily. Spread the dung on the floor that has reduced blowing through it well. which if there is sunshine and good winds can Reduce the moisture content of the manure from 75% to only 20% within 2 days only. The nitrogen contained in the manure will remain large. Chicken cages in use today Some models have a dung conveyor placed under the floor. The cage will also be equipped with a fan to help dry the droppings faster.
utilization of chicken manure
Composting manure from chicken manure
The degradation that occurs by microorganisms that use air is a natural process. cause gas carbon dioxide water and heat After complete decomposition, a soil-like material with high humus is obtained. During the decomposition process, degradation takes place. Nitrogen is a volatile ammonia gas up into the atmosphere, so after complete decomposition. The nitrogen content in the manure is reduced and ammonia odor is often a problem during the decomposition process. Compost can be made from caged chicken manure or on a substrate. Hatchery waste, eggshells and dead chicken carcasses, which can be converted from waste to by-products, can create added value.
The composting process consists of
1. Mix farm residues or waste with carbon-containing materials (rice straw, corncobs, etc.) in a ratio of carbon source: nitrogen equal to 20-25:1, so manure alone may be made into compost. Yes, if the ratio of carbon: nitrogen is appropriate. 2. Add air 3. Pour water to increase the humidity to about 35-50%. 4. Check the temperature inside the fermentation pile. At first the temperature will rise very high. due to the process degraded by microorganisms This will take several weeks. If the decomposition process is complete, then the temperature inside the pile The compost remains stable, does not increase the temperature during storage and during use.
nutrients in chicken droppings
The amount of nutrients contained in chicken manure depends on many factors, including:
1. Nutritious components of feed used for raising chickens 2. Age and type of chicken 3. Methods for collecting and handling manure 4. General environmental conditions in the house such as temperature, humidity, watering equipment which will affect the moisture content in the manure
The quality of chicken manure largely depends on the moisture content. The faster the droppings dry, the greater the amount of nutrients. will still remain high Nitrogen, in particular, is readily evaporated in the form of ammonia if there is moisture. and the functioning of microorganisms When calculating the nutrient content in the manure, it was found that the proportion was inversely proportional to the moisture content as shown in Table 3.2. For example, dry manure with moisture content less than 35% contained approximately 60 kg/ton of nitrogen while the moisture content of manure was less than 35%. 35-55% will contain about 20 kg / ton of nitrogen, and if the wet manure has a moisture content of more than 55%, there will be nitrogen content of only 12 kg / ton. Kilograms in the area Approximately 2.4 tons of wet chicken droppings will be required, but if using dry manure, only 1 ton will be needed.
Table 3.2 Analysis values of phytochemicals in laying hen manure in cages with different humidity Humidity (%) Nitrogen (%) Phosphorus * Potassium * Total salt P (%) P (%) 2O5(% ) K (%) K2O (%)
Fresh manure (75%) 1.13 0.74 1.70 0.63 0.76 3.86 Moist manure (35%) 2.36 1.31 3.01 0.98 1.18 4.94 Dry manure (10%) 3.84 2.01 4.62 1.42 1.70 6.18 * P2O5 = P x 2.3 ; K2O = K x 12
Sources: Bell (1971 ; Cited in Bell and Weaver (2002).
Using chicken manure as animal feed
Chicken manure is used as a fertilizer for plant nutrition. Chicken droppings are also used as animal feed. Ruminant too Because in the chicken manure will remain some components of raw materials that are not fully digested and absorbed.
For example, non-protein nitrogen compounds, therefore, chicken manure can be recycled. It can be used as feed for non-lactating cattle. But use in monogastric animals is not good. Due to the relatively low content of pure protein and high ash content, it is not economically viable as growth is reduced and a high-quality protein feed is needed to be supplemented. Must be checked first that there are no foreign substances that will harm the animals mixed with it, so the chicken droppings To be used as animal feed requires good planning and management in order to obtain high-nutrient and free-range chicken manure. Contamination of foreign matter and pesticide residues Antibiotics and herbicides, metal shavings, rock or glass shards, etc.
Table 3.3 Chemical/Nutrient composition of chicken droppings
Humidity 7.4 Protein 23.8 Pure Protein 10.8 Total Fat 2.1 Flour 39.6 Fiber 13.7 Ash 26.9 Calcium 7.8
Source: Bell and Weaver (2002)
Common problems related to droppings
Wet dropping Wet droppings can occur for a number of reasons, including:
1. If the food is high in protein and salt, it will cause the chicken to excrete its droppings more liquid. 2. Chicken species found that laying hens that lay eggs will excrete liquid faeces more than chickens that do not fertilize eggs. 3. Environmental temperature inside the house If the temperature is high, the chicken will drink more water to help. Cools out of the body, resulting in excretion of excrement as well. 4. Water leaking from the watering device directly increases the humidity. Checking for water leaks is difficult. Before the babysitter knows, it may be too late. Therefore, it is necessary to use a meter to measure the volume of water used each day. If there is an abnormality in the use of water, check immediately. Currently, sensors are also being developed to install water supply equipment, if any. The amount of water used is greater than the standard set, it will warn the party to check for abnormalities.
Odor: Chicken droppings are high in nitrogen.
Therefore, if the chicken droppings are moist, it will make it easier for microorganisms to react and release ammonia gas. The ammonia gas, in addition to emitting a foul smell, is also effective. Corrosive to metal materials as well. removal of dead chicken carcasses
During the raising of chickens, mortality occurs almost daily in which the mortality of chickens is divided into normal mortality that is not caused by disease. Death from accidents and death from disease or culling chickens, etc. The principles of management of dead chickens are as follows.
1. Dead chickens must be collected and removed from the cage or house every day. 2. Dead chickens must be kept in sealed containers to prevent contact with vectors such as flies, beetles, dogs, cats and wild birds, etc. 3. The carcass must be collected or disposed of in a separate area that is far from the chicken farming area. 4. After collecting dead chicken carcasses, put them in a container or take them out of the house. Workers must wash their hands. Wash and disinfect any equipment that comes in contact with the chicken. For employees, change new clothes to clean clothes. before starting a new job 5. Persons operating on carcasses of chickens or vehicles carrying dead chickens will not be discarded or disposed of. Re-entering the chicken area is strictly prohibited, unless it has been cleaned and disinfected.
The chicken carcass disposal system must be made to be able to remove enough chicken carcasses. At least in the event that Mortality is normal and a little more is required in case of increased mortality. The values in Table 3.4 can be used as the basis for the calculations.
Table 3.4 The number of chicken carcasses at different mortality rates (kg) (percentage of chicken dead x mean body weight x 1,000)
Per 10,000 birds mortality rate (%)
0.10%/week 0.25%/week 0.50%/week
– White eggshell (1.8 kg.) 2.6 6.5 13.0 – Brown eggshell (2.3 kg.) 3.2 8.1 16.2 Replacement pullets – White eggshell (1.4 kg.) 2.0 4.9 9.7 – Brown eggshell (1.6 kg.) 2.3 5.7 11.4 Broilers – Weight 2.3 kg. 3.2 8.1 16.2 – Weight 2.7 kg. 3.9 9.8 19.5 Source: Bell and Weaver (2002)
How to get rid of dead chicken carcasses
There are several methods of eliminating dead chicken carcasses, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. As shown in Table 3.5, each carcass removal method This is done as follows:
1. Burial is a traditional method that was used in the past and is still used today in small chicken farms, but in the case of large farms, this type of carcass removal is not appropriate. The buried chicken carcass may contaminate groundwater. causing foul odors and causing nuisance insects. The burial must be buried at a sufficient depth, for example, should dig a hole with a width of 76-120 cm and a depth of approximately
9-12 m. The burial pit must be located away from the water source and must not be dug to the groundwater level to prevent contamination. contaminated with groundwater
2. Disposal pits Disposal pits are another form of burial. Disposal pits are usually made to a depth of about 3 m and have a cover which may be made of wood or made of wood. concrete for protection Flies and vectors This will allow bacteria to decompose the chicken carcass more quickly. Digestion is faster if the dead chicken carcasses are chopped into smaller pieces before being dumped in the carcass pit. The dumping pond must be in a place where the flood waters cannot reach. not less than 60 meters away from the house, away from the water source The pond or reservoir must not be less than 90 meters and must be at least 8 meters from the chicken house. Calculated according to the mortality rate of chickens in the farm. Usually the minimum Approximately 1.4 cubic meters/1,000 chicken mortality/year is calculated. 3. Incineration is the best method of disposing of dead chicken carcasses but may need to be monitored. from the local government agencies first. Because it may cause air pollution. incineration as a measure One of the systems for protection against biological threats and does not cause water pollution. Unattractive to vectors and residual ash It’s easy to get rid of However, this type of waste disposal has its drawbacks, which are slow removal and high operating costs. If the incinerator is improperly positioned, such as upwind, complaints of odors may arise in downwind communities. 4. Removal or processing for use (Rendering) dead chicken carcasses due to The normal mortality rate is that it does not die due to infection. Chicken carcasses can be utilized as animal by-products and used as feedstocks, thereby reducing the problem of carcass removal and thus Adding value can be created, such as being used as food to feed crocodiles, etc. However, there must be sanitation and Systematic and proper management of chicken carcasses Some farms have a cold room or a freezer. For collecting dead chicken carcasses to wait for distribution especially 5. Composting. Using dead chicken carcasses to make compost is very popular in raising broiler chickens. If properly managed, it will be the most environmentally friendly method. No problems with odor and water pollution, it also creates soil fertility.
Process of making compost from dead chicken carcasses There are steps as follows.
1. Grind the dead chicken carcass and mix the large and small parts together. 2. Control the humidity appropriately, about 60%. If the humidity in the compost pile is more than this causing a bad smell But if the humidity is lower, it will slow down the decomposition process. 3. The proportion of carbon:nitrogen must be appropriate. For optimal bacterial and fungal growth, the optimal ratio must be in the range of 20-25:1 by maintaining the ratio of dead chicken carcasses and sources of slaughter. Carbon using rice straw, corn cobs, leaves or grass, etc. 4. Suitable temperature In the process of microbial fermentation and decomposition, the temperature must be between 54-66 °C. If the temperature is higher than 83 °C or below 49 °C, the quality of the compost will be poor.
Ingredient preparation and placement of chicken carcasses, carbon sources and water must be arranged in layers, starting with chicken manure, carbon sources (rice straw or corncobs, etc.), dead chicken carcasses, alternating between them. Must not be thicker than 6-8 inches, or 15-20 centimeters, or as thick as the thickness of the chicken lying on the bed by specifying the following proportions:
– 1.0 parts by weight of chicken carcass – 1.5 parts of chicken manure – Rice straw/corncob (carbon source) 0.1 parts – 0.2 parts of water
In some cases, adding water may not be necessary as excess moisture may cause odors. It’s smelly and can be air polluted.
Table 3.5 compares the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of eliminating dead chicken carcasses.
Method, pros and cons
Implantation (Disposal pit)
– Cost saving and less odor
– Not contaminated groundwater and not in contact with other chickens if the incineration system is effective. – is a reservoir of pathogens and There must be good drainage. – Must take into account the contamination of pathogens, diseases, smells to groundwater – high cost and can cause air pollution – There are few leftovers. – Be sure the size and efficiency of the furnace enough to meet the needs of the farm – Must burn the carcass of the chicken. completely until the ash is white
– Makes more income if placed production plans and market support – If the composting process is correct, there will be none. contaminating pathogens into soil and air – No data for disposal/rendering – There is no disposal of dead chicken carcasses within the farm area. – low investment – Low contamination of pathogens to the environment – Chicken carcasses can be taken back as raw materials. other animal feeds – Must have a freezer to store chicken carcasses – Must have a safety system rigorous biological protection Don’t let the germs from the factory get rid of. Contact to the farm
Sources: Arber Acres; Broiler Management Hand Book (2014)
Summary of steps for cleaning the chicken house
1. Unload the chicken 2. Store the device 3. Unload the foundation material. 4. Rough sweeping by sweeping down from the highest parts such as roofs, ceilings, nets 5. Wash the house by washing from the highest part such as the roof, ceiling, netting, fans, equipment, floors and around the house with a high pressure pump of 200-400 pounds/square inch. 6. Pour caustic soda on the floor and walkways around the house. to destroy helminth eggs, ratio 3-5 kg./100 liters of water 7. Spray insecticide and disinfectant. Spray evenly on roofs, ceilings, nets, walls, floors and around the house. 8. Flame spray, usually used for breeder chicken farms. 9. Close the curtains. The curtains must be washed and clean. 10. Spray disinfectant on roofs, ceilings, walls, floors and around the house. 11. Spray formalin while the floor is damp, cool and windless. The house is closed with curtains. 12. Sprinkle lime on the floor all over. The ratio of lime 5 kg. / area 80 sq m. 13. Bring the foundation material in. 14. Organize reeds/equipment The device must be dipped in disinfectant before being brought in. 15. Spray formalin on the substrate, the ratio of formalin 1 liter / 9 liters of water. 16. Sprinkle lime around the walkway and prepare a foot bath. (Disinfectant solution)